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35mm Film leader with test pattern #1516/2009 - Satoshi Kinoshita
( Satoshi Kinoshita )

Series: Prints on paper: 35mm Film Leader
Medium: Giclée on Japanese matte paper
Size (inches): 16.5 x 11.7 (paper size)
Size (mm): 420 x 297 (paper size)
Edition size: 25
Catalog #: PP_0177
Description: From an edition of 25. Signed, titled, date, copyright, edition in pencil on the reverse / Aside from the numbered edition of 5 artist's proofs and 2 printer's proofs.

Ludwig Wittgenstein: Public and Private Occasions

Edited and Translated by James Klagge and Alfred Nordmann
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

In the safety of his manuscripts, Ludwig Wittgenstein was free to endlessly revise, rework and reframe his philosophical thoughts. Thus his published work yields a glimpse of just a small portion of Wittgenstein's philosophical thought--the portion that eventually appeared in print. Yet for Wittgenstein, philosophy was an on-going activity, a process. Only in his dialog with the philosophical community and in his private moments does Wittgenstein's philosophical practice fully come to light. Those public and private occasions are collected here.

In Private Occasions, co-editor Alfred Nordmann presents Wittgenstein's diaries from the 1930s to an English audience for the first time. They are accompanied by Wittgenstein's letters to and from friend Ludwig Hänsel. Together, they reveal a great deal about Wittgenstein, who himself says "The movement of thought in my philosophizing should be discernible also in the history of my mind."

In Public Occasions, James Klagge collects Wittgenstein's papers and speeches, some newly published, from a number of forums, including his lectures at Cambridge and his involvement with the Cambridge Moral Science Club. Much of Wittgenstein's philosophical work came through, or in the form of, dialogs, making these public encounters particularly valuable.

The result of this collaboration, Ludwig Wittgenstein: Public and Private Occasions, is a thorough look at the philosophy of one of the 20th century's greatest thinkers that goes beyond a mere study of his published work.

About the Editors
James Klagge is professor of philosophy at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Alfred Nordmann is associate professor of philosophy at the University of South Carolina.

Hardcover, 432 pages
Published August 28th 2003 by Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.


Cambridge University Moral Sciences Club -

The Cambridge University Moral Sciences Club, founded in October 1878, is a philosophy discussion group that meets weekly at Cambridge during term time. Speakers are invited to give a 30-minute paper, after which discussion is thrown open for several hours.

The club has been highly influential in analytic philosophy because of the concentration of philosophers at Cambridge. Members have included many of British philosophy's top names, such as Henry Sidgwick, J.M.E. McTaggart, Bertrand Russell, G.E. Moore, and Ludwig Wittgenstein, and several papers regarded as founding documents of various schools of thoughts had their first airing at a club meeting. Moore's "The Nature of Judgment" was first read to the club on 21 October 1898.[1] Frank P. Ramsey's "Knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description" was presented to a meeting in 1911, and in 1926 became Truth and Probability. Russell's "Limits of Empiricism" was read in the Michaelmas term of 1935, and Moore's paradox was first read in Michaelmas 1944. Almost every major philosopher since the Second World War has delivered a paper to the club.[2]

It was during a meeting of the Moral Sciences Club in October 1946 that Wittgenstein famously waved a hot poker at Sir Karl Popper during a heated discussion about whether philosophical problems are real or just linguistic games.[2]


Wittgenstein arrived in Cambridge in 1911 and became a member of the club in 1912, when he suggested that no paper last more than seven minutes, a rule adopted on 15 November 1912, though soon abandoned. He gave his first paper on 29 November that year, called "What is philosophy?", at a meeting in his rooms at Trinity. Fifteen members were present, including G.E. Moore. The minutes record:

Mr Wittgenstein ... read a paper entitled "What is Philosophy?" The paper lasted only about 4 minutes, thus cutting the previous record established by Mr Tye by nearly two minutes. Philosophy was defined as all those primitive propositions which are assumed as true without proof by the various sciences. This defn. was much discussed but there was no general disposition to adopt it. The discussion was kept very well to the point, and the Chairman did not find it necessary to intervene much.[7]

He left Cambridge in 1913, but returned in January 1929 and started attended meetings again, but he was an intense man and was accused of dominating discussion, which led him to break off his relationship with the club for a few years in 1931. Another member, Fania Pascal, wrote that he was the disturbing centre of the evenings. "He would talk for long periods without interruption, using similes and allegories, stalking about the room and gesticulating. He cast a spell."[8]

His dominance of the Moral Sciences Club reached its height in October 1946 during a meeting that is now legendary among philosophers. It was on 25 October in Richard Braithwaite's rooms in the Gibbs building at King's (room three on the first floor of staircase H). A confrontation arose between Wittgenstein, who was chairing the meeting, and the evening's guest speaker, Karl Popper, Reader in Logic and Scientific Method at the London School of Economics. The meeting had been organized by Wasfi Hijab, the club secretary, and was attended by 30 philosophers—dons and students—including Peter Geach, Peter Gray-Lucas, Georg Kreisel, Peter Munz, Stephen Plaister, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Toulmin, John Vinelott, and Michael Wolff. It was reportedly the only time Popper, Russell, and Wittgenstein—three of the world's most eminent philosophers—were ever together.[9]

Popper was reading "Are there philosophical problems?" and an argument broke out about the nature of philosophy: whether philosophical problems were real, which was Popper's position, or just linguistic puzzles, which was Wittgenstein's. The pair almost came to blows, with Wittgenstein pointing Braithwaite's reportedly red-hot poker at Popper, demanding that he give an example of a moral rule. Popper offered one: "Not to threaten visiting speakers with pokers," at which point Wittgenstein stormed out in a huff.[9] The minutes make no mention of the poker incident, recording only that, "The meeting was charged to an unusual degree with a spirit of controversy":[10]

Second meeting Oct 26th, 1946
Dr K.R. Popper, Methods in Philosophy
In Mr. Braithwaite's Rooms at King's

In the first part of his paper Dr Popper explained how he chose this topic as a consequence of his astonishment and surprise at the Secretary's letter of invitation*, which made use of such expressions as "a short paper," "open a discussion," "state a philosophical puzzle" etc, which reflected a different view from his own as to what philosophy is. He went on to describe this philosophy and its origins, giving it the label "Linguistic Philosophy" (Wittgenstein and his "school"). He considers the advent of this school an epoch in philosophy, but he would criticize it very strongly on several points. Thus while it occupies itself with "preliminaries" it claims exclusiveness to the title of "philosophy" and never goes beyond these "preliminaries" to the more important problems of philosophy. After all, one knows what he means by his philosophical question and the important thing is to provide the "true answer" for it. It also cultivates "esotericism."

In discussion, however, it turned out that to give an example of the "beyond the preliminaries" problem is a difficult task which calls for both labour and time. The examples which Dr Popper eventually suggested seemed to some of the audience to be no more than problems in pure maths or Sociology. The meeting was charged to an unusual degree with a spirit of controversy.

Prof. Wittgenstein was in the chair.

*It is the Club's form of invitation. Wasfi Hijab, Secretary


1. ^ Moore, G.E. "The Nature of Judgment", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, April 1899.
2. ^ a b Ahmed, Arif. "The Moral Sciences Club (A Short History)", Faculty of Philosophy, University of Cambridge, 2008, accessed 30 August 2010.
7. ^ Klagge, James Carl and Nordmann, Alfred (eds.) Ludwig Wittgenstein: Public and Private Occasions. Rowman & Littlefield, 2003, p. 332, citing Michael Nedo and Michele Ranchetti (eds.). Ludwig Wittgenstein: sein Leben in Bildern und Texten. Suhrkamp, 1983, p. 89.
8. ^ Klagge, James Carl and Nordmann, Alfred (eds.) Ludwig Wittgenstein: Public and Private Occasions. Rowman & Littlefield, 2003, pp. 333–334, citing Pascal's recollections in Rush Rhees. Recollections of Wittgenstein. Oxford University Press, 1984.
9. ^ a b Eidinow, John and Edmonds, David. "When Ludwig met Karl...", The Guardian, 31 March 2001. Also see "Wittgenstein's Poker by David Edmonds and John Eidinow", The Guardian, 21 November 2001.
10. ^ Minutes of the Wittgenstein's poker meeting, University of Cambridge, courtesy of Flickr, accessed August 30, 2010.


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Series Prints on paper: 35mm Film Leader
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